Strategic Plan


Northern Waters Library Service (NWLS) is a joint library agency of Ashland, Bayfield, Burnett, Douglas, Iron, Sawyer, Vilas, and Washburn Counties. It is a federated public library system which includes as members all 29 public libraries in the eight participating counties. Collectively NWLS and its member libraries provide public library service to the 155,000 residents of the eight-county area.

 NWLS is established under the provisions of Chapter 43 of the Wisconsin Statutes, and receives state funding through the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. State statutes define the parameters and requirements under which the system must operate. Within these requirements, however, the system has considerable flexibility in determining how they will be implemented and in establishing priorities for services and funding. Strategic planning is an effective tool for determining the best ways in which the system can accomplish its statutory mission.

 NWLS began in 1959, with an agreement between Ashland, Bayfield, Iron, and Price Counties to provide bookmobile service to communities without a public library and rotating book collections to public libraries. At that time, the organization was known as Multi-County Library System. In 1962, Price County withdrew from the system and Douglas County joined. In 1965, Vilas County became a member, followed by Burnett County in 1966, Washburn County in 1967 and Sawyer County in 1969.

 In 1972, the Wisconsin passed legislation that enabled counties to form public library systems. The goal of the new law was to give every Wisconsin resident access to public library service and to improve the quality of public libraries in the state. The Multi-County Library System became Northwest Wisconsin Library System; in 1989, the name again changed, this time to Northern Waters Library Service.

 NWLS has changed dramatically since 1959. Bookmobile service and rotating book collections (later supplemented with rotating collections of non-print media) ended in 1999. In 2000, the Merlin shared automation system began and NWLS began to support Internet service to its member libraries. This change from direct service to patrons to service through member libraries and a related change in focus to technology-related services reflects changing expectations of society, one that is similar to other library systems in Wisconsin.

 At its meeting in May 2006, the NWLS Board of Trustees authorized the establishment of Strategic Planning Committee for the purpose of developing a strategic plan for the library system for the period 2007-2011. Larry T. Nix, Consulting Librarian, was hired by NWLS to serve as the facilitator for the strategic planning process. The strategic planning process utilized is described in Appendix A. The following document is the result of that strategic planning process.

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Strategic Planning Committee

NWLS Board Members
- Al Lundquist (Ashland County)
- Marcia Wellnitz (Bayfield County)

Library Directors
- Jennie Thewis (Legion Memorial Library, Mellen - Ashland County)
- Darrell Pendergrass (Washburn Public Library - Bayfield County)
- Judy Pearson (Grantsburg Public Library - Burnett County)
- Janet Jennings (Superior Public Library - Douglas County)
- Lynne Pedri (Hurley Public Library - Iron County)
- Molly Lank-Jones (Hayward Carnegie Library - Sawyer County)
- Diana Anderson (Olson Memorial Library, Eagle River - Vilas County)
- Jane Frankiewicz (Spooner Memorial Library - Washburn County)

NWLS Staff
- Jim Trojanowski, Director
- Linda Bailen, Interlibrary Loan Librarian
- Linda Stobbe, Office Manager

- Larry T. Nix, Consulting Librarian, Middleton, WI


The mission of Northern Waters Library Service is to provide access to quality public library services through its member libraries.

Visions for Northern Waters

Overall Vision:

Residents of the Northern Waters Library Service area have convenient access to quality library services that enrich the communities of Northern Wisconsin and those who live in them.

Additional Visions:

Vision 1: All residents of the Northern Waters Library Service area have timely access to quality library service.

Vision 2: All NWLS member libraries are completely satisfied with system services.

Vision 3: The general public, including government officials, recognize and understand the services provided by Northern Waters Library Service.

Vision 4: Public funding provides for quality library services.

Vision 5: NWLS allocates its budget in a way that effectively and efficiently allows the system to accomplish its mission, goals, and priorities.

Vision 6: Technology enhances the quality of library services received by the residents of Northern Wisconsin.

Vision 7: State legislative policy for library service meets the needs of the Northern Waters Library Service area.

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1 | A Vision for Access to Library Service

All residents of the Northern Waters Library Service area have timely access to quality library service.

Goal 1: 

NWLS will increase customer satisfaction with public library service.


1.1.1 NWLS will improve the size and quality of the collection in member libraries.

1.1.2 NWLS will improve the efficiency of the interlibrary loan service.

1.1.3 NWLS will encourage member libraries to be open more evening and weekend hours.

1.1.4 NWLS will assist all member libraries in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

1.1.5 NWLS will assist all member libraries in developing services for children and teens.

1.1.6 NWLS will assist all member libraries with identifying underserved populations and developing services for them.

Goal 2: 

NWLS will make Merlin an exemplary shared automated library system.


1.2.1 NWLS will encourage all member libraries to actively participate in Merlin.

1.2.2 NWLS will encourage standardization of loan rules.

1.2.3 NWLS will improve the accuracy of the catalog component of Merlin.

1.2.4 NWLS will create a culture in which all member libraries share all materials.

Goal 3: 

NWLS will provide service to residents where libraries are not easily accessible.


1.3.1 NWLS will promote mail-a-book.

1.3.2 NWLS will promote and improve access to the Merlin online catalog.

1.3.3 NWLS will explore putting kiosks in public gathering places.

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2 | A Vision of Member Library Satisfaction

All NWLS member libraries are completely satisfied with system services.

Goal 1: 

NWLS services will be developed in consultation with member libraries.


2.1.1 Service priorities will be discussed with member library directors as part of the budget process.

2.1.2 NWLS will survey member library staff on system service priorities.

Goal 2: 

NWLS will effectively communicate its services to member libraries.


2.2.1 NWLS will maintain a new director orientation program.

2.2.2 NWLS will send an annual letter to each member library Board that outlines system services.

2.2.3 NWLS will create and distribute a handbook that outlines system services.

2.2.4 NWLS will maintain an up-to-date Web site that showcases system services to member libraries.

Goal 3: 

NWLS will facilitate communication between itself and member libraries and among member libraries.


2.3.1 NWLS will continue to develop Streams, the system’s online newsletter.

2.3.2 NWLS will continue to maintain a toll free number to facilitate member library access to the NWLS staff.

2.3.3 NWLS will continue to host periodic meetings of the public library directors.

2.3.4 NWLS will maintain a listserv for member libraries.

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3 | A Vision for Promoting Library Services

The public, including government officials, recognizes and understands the services provided by Northern Waters Library Service.

Goal 1: 

NWLS will develop a public relations program to make the public, elected officials, and member libraries aware of its services.


3.1.1 NWLS will issue regular press releases about its services.

3.1.2 NWLS will encourage member libraries to promote system services as well as their own.

3.1.3 NWLS will create a brochure or other public relations piece that indicates the value of its services in addition to providing information on those services.

3.1.4 NWLS will visit government officials at least annually to share information on the value of system services.

3.1.5 NWLS will generate a public relations presence through the system service area using a variety of approaches.

3.1.6 NWLS will publicly recognize exemplary library advocacy.

Goal 2: 

NWLS will assist member libraries in developing effective public relations programs.


3.2.1 NWLS will encourage member libraries to make use of state and national public relations efforts such as the Campaign for Wisconsin Libraries.

3.2.2 NWLS will purchase computer software that can be used by member libraries to produce public relations materials.

3.2.3 NWLS will encourage member libraries to make use of public relations materials produced by other libraries, systems, and associations.

3.2.4 NWLS will conduct a workshop(s) on effective public relations approaches.

Goal 3: 

NWLS will work with member libraries to keep elected officials aware of the importance of library services.


3.3.1 NWLS will encourage member libraries to make contacts with public officials throughout the year.

3.3.2 NWLS will provide member libraries with public relations materials that indicate the value of library services.

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4 | A Vision for Library Funding

Public funding provides for quality library services.

Goal 1: 

NWLS member counties will reimburse their libraries for 100% of the cost of services to non-residents.


4.1.1 NWLS will work to enhance local officials’ understanding of the value of library services.

4.1.2 NWLS will work with counties to develop county library plans.

Goal 2: 

NWLS will receive full funding from its member counties for their share of the system budget.


4.2.1 NWLS will keep county officials aware of the cost and value of library services.

4.2.2 NWLS will establish counties as stakeholders in the future success of the system and member libraries.

4.2.3 NWLS will encourage each county board to appoint a representative to the NWLS board.

Goal 3: 

NWLS will participate in statewide advocacy programs to ensure optimal state funding for public libraries.


4.3.1 NWLS will work to achieve 13% state funding for public library systems and an equitable distribution formula.

4.3.2 NWLS will educate legislators about the costs involved in providing library services.

Goal 4: 

NWLS will work to obtain optimal funding to provide services to its member libraries.


4.4.1 NWLS will pursue additional funding from grants.

4.4.2 NWLS will work with libraries and local governments to comply with state maintenance of effort requirements.

4.4.3 NWLS will provide workshops on funding and fundraising.

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5 | A Vision for Allocating Financial Resources

NWLS allocates its budget to effectively and efficiently accomplish its mission.

Goal 1: 

NWLS will develop its budget with an eye for the future.


5.1.1 NWLS will seek input from member libraries and staff prior to developing its budget.

5.3.2 NWLS will continue to grow its Equipment Fund.

5.3.3 NWLS will anticipate future budget demands as it develops its current budget.

Goal 2: 

NWLS will seek cost savings and service efficiency.


5.2.1 NWLS will continue to explore ways to lower costs through cooperative purchasing.

5.2.2 NWLS staff will attend meetings and workshops that offer ideas on cost efficiency.

5.2.3 NWLS will review the procedures of each service area at least annually to seek new efficiencies.

6 | A Vision for Technology Utilization

Technology enhances the quality of library services available to the residents of Northern Wisconsin.

Goal 1: 

All NWLS libraries will have access to fast, reliable Internet service.


6.1.1 NWLS will monitor Internet use to anticipate future needs.

6.1.2 NWLS will establish a network of contacts to proactively identify and resolve problems.

Goal 2: NWLS will work with member libraries to identify and implement relevant new technology that enables the system and its members to accomplish their missions.


6.2.1 NWLS will hold workshops on current and emerging library technology.

6.2.2 NWLS will provide technology updates through its Web site and email.

6.2.3 NWLS will actively promote the use of technology as a way to improve customer service.

6.2.4 NWLS will continue to develop methods to improve technical support to member libraries.

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7 | A Vision for State Library Legislative Policy

State legislative policy for library services meets the needs of the Northern Waters Library Service area.

Goal 1: 

NWLS will encourage staff, local library, and trustee involvement and dialogue with state representatives.


7.1.1 NWLS will encourage staff and member library participation in the Wisconsin Library Association’s state legislative day.

7.1.2 NWLS will host local library legislative day(s).

7.1.3 NWLS will post legislator contact information and sample letters on the system’s Web site.

Goal 2: 

NWLS will communicate with member libraries and trustees regarding state legislative issues.


7.2.1 NWLS will inform libraries and trustees of state library issues.

7.2.2 NWLS will discuss key legislative issues with member libraries.

7.2.3 NWLS will encourage the use of its listserv for questions and answers regarding legislative issues.

Goal 3: 

NWLS will work to ensure that Wisconsin law supports the best interests of libraries.


7.3.1 NWLS will keep area legislators informed of library needs.

7.3.2 NWLS will advocate for library friendly legislation.

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Appendix A: The Strategic Planning Process

The strategic planning process used by the Strategic Planning Committee was a variation of a process developed by Robert L. Semmann, a former administrator in the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, for use by public agencies. This process is an accelerated planning process which relies on a planning group that is very knowledgeable about the organization for which the plan is being developed.

Prior to the initial meeting of the Committee, participants were given a variety of documents which collectively provided an overview of the resources and programs of Northern Waters Library Service. These documents in effect constituted an internal environmental scan of NWLS, and were intended for the Committee to take into consideration in its deliberations.

The following steps in the planning process took place at a two-day meeting on June 19 and June 20, 2006 and a two day meeting on July 10 and 11, 2006.

- Inventorying, Assessment
   · SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) Analysis
   · Stakeholder Analysis
   · Environmental Scan
- Draft Preliminary Mission Statement
- Issue identification
- Issue lumping
- Issue naming
- Development of strategic vision statements for issue groups
- Development of a draft overall vision statement for NWLS
- Review of strategic vision statements
- Review of draft overall vision statement
- Development of goals for each vision statement
- Development of strategies to implement goals
- Finalize overall vision statement
- Finalize mission statement

After the Committee completed these steps, the facilitator drafted a preliminary strategic plan which was reviewed by the Committee at a final meeting on July 31. The preliminary plan was revised by the facilitator and submitted to the Director of NWLS.

The Public Library Directors group will be given an opportunity to review the revised preliminary plan at its meeting on August 15.

The NWLS staff will provide input into the revised plan at a staff meeting before September 16, 2006.

The Board of Trustees will consider the strategic plan at their meeting on September 16, 2006

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Appendix B: SWOT Analysis

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats

In this exercise each participant was asked to write down on a sheet the greatest strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats or challenges facing the NWLS. They were then asked to transfer these to large post-it notes. Similar items were grouped and named in each category. Participants then voted on which group of items in each category were the most significant. The votes and all comments from participants are given below. Eleven people voted and were given 5 votes each.


Staff (11 votes)
- Staff’s collective knowledge
- Friendly staff
- Staff experience
- Knowledgeable staff
- Positive, supportive staff
- Staff
- Friendly, accessible staff
- Cooperation among staff
- Office manager’s record keeping
- Dedicated staff, works well together
- Director
- Dedicated staff
- Director’s recent library experience
- Staff: helpful, friendly, knowledgeable
- Staff works as a team
- Accessible staff
- Professionalism/expertise
- Commitment to service
- NWLS staff willing to help
- Total support from all NWLS staff
- Teamwork

Delivery (10 votes)
- Delivery system
- Stable, delivery service

Merlin (9 votes)
- Merlin & shared catalog
- Shared automation system
- Merlin cooperation

Continuing education (6 votes)
- Continuing education improving
- Commitment to service – continuing education

Member librarians (5 votes)
- Dedicated member librarians
- Member libraries

Facility (5 votes)
- Good facility
- Location of NWLS
- Pleasant work area for staff (building)
- Nice facility

Communication (3 votes)
- Good communication between NWLS staff and 8 county boards
- NWLS staff communicate well

Member support (1 vote)
- Good support for small libraries
- Services to outlying providers

Vision (1 vote)
- Vision for NWLS users

Resource (1 vote)
- Great resource

State support (1 vote)
- Knowledge base of DLTCL, important resource

County support (1 vote)
- County support
- Interested county board (in Bayfield), “library knowledge”


Staff time constraints (11 votes)
- Time for NWLS staff to implement goals
- Lack of focus/ trying to do too much
- Staff spread too thin
- Limited time
- Staff spread a little to far at times
- Need more library volunteers

Public relations (10 votes)
- Need to advertise services
- PR
- Website unattractive; lacks information
- What a library system does not easily understood by public/politicians

Funding (10 votes)
- Budget
- Inadequate state funding
- State funding formula
- Funding issues
- Limited funding
- State money (need more state support)
- Staff forced to choose how much and what kind of support to provide
- Low funding & effects

Geographic area (9 votes)
- Large service area
- Large geographic area
- Wide geographic area
- Problem reaching rural patrons (over 20 minutes to library)
- Location (far from Madison)

Lack of consensus among member libraries (5 votes)
- Libraries not always in consensus with regard to issues

Communication (3 votes)
- Communication
- Communication
- Making decisions then asking for input

Problem solving (2 votes)
- Lack of original solutions to our unique problems
- We try to follow trends of southern Wisconsin

Service quality (2 votes)
- Mediocre standards are OK
- Lack accountability

Economy of Northern Wisconsin (2 votes)
- Economy of N. Wisconsin

Board involvement (1 vote)
- NWLS Board lacks involvement

Need to fundraise (no votes)
- Lack of fundraising


Public Relations (10 votes)
- Promote ride share to libraries “take a neighbor”
- Use Web page as PR tool even more
- Ads done seasonally in newspapers on air (radio-tv); showcase special events & services
- “Talk up” libraries at meetings: town, county, AARP
- Toot your own horn (to public) re system roles & importance
- Share PR material; creative press releases applicable for any library in local papers
- More PR to promote member libraries
- Celebrate & share what member libraries are doing
- Promote librarianship as a career
- Hold Northwest legislative day

Improve technology (Merlin) (8 votes)
- More libraries join Merlin
- WISCAT borrowing as easy as Merlin
- Distance learning technology
- Use of LSTA funds for technology
- Increase number of member-paid shared services, i.e. Pharos
- Adding more libraries to Merlin
- Get everyone on Merlin
- All NWLS members Merlin members
- Cooperate with neighboring systems for ILL/delivery via Innovative software

Funding (6 votes)
- Using PR to promote services and for fundraising
- Higher salaries for staff
- Encourage private donations
- Grants

Expand/explore other services (6 votes)
- Explore services offered in other systems and in other states
- Expand service to include reader’s advisory, collection development, consulting
- More programs for library patrons

In-service training (6 votes)
- Improved inservice training through computer/technology innovations
- More regional training and meetings to help with travel
- Further education
- More programs for library hours
- Time management workshops
- Additional education opportunities

Communication (4 votes)
- Improve use of electronic communication
- Proactively share issues with members
- Electronic communication improvements
- Create written policy for exact services for member libraries
- Help members introduce new act to county boards


Funding (10 votes)
- County support
- Lack of adequate funding (unfunded 13% mandate)
- Employee benefit costs (health insurance)
- Large debt
- Budget/funding
- Cut in funding, local & or state
- Budget cuts
- Fuel costs
- Status of LSTA funds
- Funding
- Lack of support at state for traditional services
- Rising energy costs
- Lack of grant opportunities
- Funding formula skewed in favor of larger, more populated systems
- Unpredictable funding sources
- Loss of county funding
- Low funding
- Staff cuts
- State law changes (funding)
- Losing county funding

Negative attitudes and lack of innovation (10 votes)
- Lack of cooperation among member libraries
- Lack of inspiration, motivation, imagination
- Poor attitude/understanding of how libraries serve communities
- Some members slow to embrace technology

Economy (9 votes)
- Poor economy
- Poor economy
- National economy
- Economy
- Depressed economy in system counties
- Loss of population, especially young people

Government legislation (9 votes)
- TABOR clone
- Uncertain legislative support
- Federal/State governments
- Legislation, state & federal

Diverse membership (3 votes)
- Diverse needs of members increasingly difficult to meet
- Lack of consistency in the effort to please all members
- Not enforcing agreed upon standards (RE: Merlin borrowing for example)

Geographic location (2 votes)
- Geographic location: it seems that downstate dismisses or forgets us

Compliance issues (1 vote)
- MOE non-compliance issues

Uninformed public (1 vote)
- Negative people, uneducated in library issues
- Narrow view of libraries

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Appendix C: Stakeholders Analysis

The Committee identified the following groups as key stakeholders in the success or failure of the programs and services of the Northern Waters Library Service:

- Member libraries (boards and directors)
- State officials (legislators)
- County officials
- Library patrons/users
- NWLS board of trustees
- Taxpayers
- NWLS staff and director
- Department of Public Instruction and the Division for Libraries, Technology, & Community Learning (DLTCL)

The Committee then identified what it felt were the criteria by which key stakeholders would evaluate the success or failure or the NWLS. These are given below.

Member libraries (boards and directors)

  • Quality of service
  • Knowledge and training of NWLS staff
  • Availability of staff
  • Comparison with other systems
  • Level of help in meeting public library standards
  • Do services meet their needs
  • Appropriateness of services

State officials (legislators)

  • Feedback from all constituents
  • Feedback from supporters
  • Visibility of services

County officials

  • Feedback from all constituents
  • Feedback from supporters
  • Visibility of services
  • See something for money appropriated
  • Efficient use of funding
  • See tangible results

Library patrons/users

  • Library service: ILL, delivery, mail-a-book, Merlin
  • More, more, more, and faster service

NWLS board of trustees

  • Feedback from member libraries
  • Director’s report
  • Annual report


  • Costs
  • Benefits to public
  • Don’t want to see overlapping services

NWLS staff and director

  • Work environment
  • Job satisfaction
  • Feedback from member libraries
  • Compensation


  • Compliance with state requirements
  • Feedback from member libraries
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Appendix D: External Environmental Scan

The Committee went through an exercise in which it identified forces and trends that impact he NWLS and its programs.

Economic forces and trends


- Low population widely scattered
- Natural disasters
- Increasing energy costs
- Underemployment/joblessness
- Government costs are rising
- Health care costs are increasing
- Security and safety groups want more
- Rising interest rates
- Growing competition for private funding
- Fewer grant opportunities
- National debt increasing

Social and demographic forces and trends


- Population is getting older
- Growing disparity in incomes
- Loss of population in some NWLS areas
- Decrease in school population
- Increase in conservatism
- Younger people don’t read as much
- More diversity in some areas of NWLS
- Economic and social pressures on Native Americans

Political, legislative, and legal forces and trends


- TABOR movement
- Decision makers look at libraries as being a low priority
- Unfunded mandates are not popular (SB 272)
- Belief that Internet will replace libraries
- Patriot Act, filtering, and other national legislation related - to increased concern for national security
- Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA)
- Economic pressures/ limited public funds
- Increase in conservatism
- Maintenance of effort requirement
- Raids on Common School Fund
- Levy limits on local government

Technological forces and trends


- Change is too fast
- Population is more knowledgeable about technology
- Greater expectation from library patrons
- Funding for new technology not keeping up with demand
- Increased training needed for staff
- Increased access to broadband
- Perception that technology is replacing need for libraries
- Increased digitization of information resources
- Changing formats

Physical environment forces and trends


- Rural area
- Isolation
- Size of geographic area (larger than Delaware)

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Appendix E: Issue Identification and Naming

Each member of the Committee was asked to write down key issues facing the NWLS and then to transfer the 5 to 7 most significant ones to large post-it notes. These were then posted and grouped by category and named. Committee members then voted for the five most significant long term issues and five most significant short term issues they felt were facing the NWLS. All issues are listed below with votes of Committee members.
Key: LT (long term), ST (short term), T (total).

Work to improve state funding (votes: 6LT, 7ST, 13T)

- Funding: state & county
- Funding
- Low funding
- Lack of sufficient funding for staffing & programs
- Budget problems keep us from offering services
- Find adequate funding for budget

Coping with changing technology (votes: 9LT, 3ST, 12T)

- Up-dating technology
- Technology changes & upgrades
- Statewide automation trends
- Money and time needed for keeping up with technology

Improving PR in the system area (votes: 7LT, 4ST, 11T)

- The general public does not know who NWLS is
- Public not aware of NWLS importance to library service
- Remote and homebound people do not know about our services
- Keep legislature informed (all gov. bodies)
- NWLS trustees communicating with member libraries
- Increasing county board member understanding of purposes of NWLS & libraries
- PR campaign about available library services

Work to improve state legislative policy (votes: 4LT, 7ST, 11T)

- Possible lawsuit
- Political trends: TABOR, reform bill, etc.

 Best allocation of financial resources (budget) by NWLS (votes 4LT, 6ST, 10T)

- Funding and best use of all money
- Provide fair salary & benefits for employees
- Pay off building debt
- Pay off debt (mortgage)

Improve cooperation and resource sharing (votes: 5LT, 4ST, 9T)

- All NWLS libraries on Merlin
- Work toward consistent loan rules among libraries
- All NWLS libraries share all materials
- Consider cooperative purchasing, i.e. recorded books and share costs
- Keeping catalog free of duplicate records

Work to improve county funding (votes: 3LT, 4ST, 7T)

- Potential loss of county funding if tangible services, i.e. mail-a-book are ended.
- Competition for county funds because of SB 272

Improve speed & reliability of Internet service (7ST, 7T)

- Swift, reliable Internet access to member libraries
- Fast reliable Internet

Improve quality of access for all residents (votes: 3LT, 3ST, 6T)

- Inequality of access to library service based on ability to pay
- Rural service area including isolation of patrons
- Inequality of access to library service based on geography
- Economy of area – many poor families without computer in home
- Remote residents
- Encourage formation of more libraries, branches
- Poor economy throughout the system
- Diversity of patron needs

Improve member satisfaction with NWLS services (votes: 3LT, 3ST, 6T)

- Keep member libraries satisfied
- Provide innovative and affordable services to member libraries
- Diverse needs of member libraries
- Increase customer (member libraries) satisfaction
- Diversity of member library needs
- Financial support for public libraries in many areas is lacking

Improve CE opportunities for staff & member libraries (votes: 2LT, 2T)

- Training
- Need for system staff to hold an increasing number of skills
- Need for member library staff to have an increasing number of skills

Respond to travel distances (large geographic area) (no votes)

- Travel distances for librarians, trustees, and staff

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Append F: Glossary of Terms

Campaign for Wisconsin Libraries: Statewide advocacy effort on behalf of Wisconsin libraries of all types developed by the Wisconsin Library Association Foundation.

Interlibrary loan: Service through which libraries borrow items from other libraries to give patrons access to a far more materials than are available locally.

Kiosks: A limited service library outlet, often with no more than a computer and a few brochures or a paperback exchange.

Maintenance of effort: Commonly used term for Wisconsin law requiring that counties and municipalities that fund public library services do so at an amount not less than the average of such funding received for the previous 3 years.

Merlin: The shared automated library system of the Northern Waters Library Service.

Non-residents: Those not living in a municipality that levies a tax for library support.

Residents: Those living in a municipality that levies a tax for library support.

13%: Wisconsin law requires that the Department of Public Instruction request state funding for public library systems in each year of the biennium equal to 13% of the total operating expenditures for public library services by counties and municipalities. In 2005, public library systems were funded at 8%.

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